西貢的一相兩命

 

看著這張相片,你的第一個印象是什麼?在當年身處越戰的人來說,他們看到的是一名身穿軍服的南越軍人在街上隨便處決一名雙手被扣在背後的平民。

一左一右,殺與被殺,對與錯好像無比清晰地呈現在觀眾眼前。

但因為這張相片而贏了Pulitzer prize的Eddie Adams卻説了這以下這番說話:

Two people died in that photograph: the recipient of the bullet and GENERAL NGUYEN NGOC LOAN. The general killed the Viet Cong; I killed the general with my camera.

殺人者是前越南共和國國家警察總監退役陸軍少將阮玉鸞。被殺的是越共游擊隊領袖阮文歛,他是其中一名被北越派到南越擾亂敵陣的僑裝民兵。

當日是越共發動春節攻勢的第二日(1968年2月1日),根據阮玉鸞,Eddie Adams及其他資料顥顯示阮文歛當日襲擊了南越的軍事設施,並在過程中殺死了阮玉鸞數名警察部下,甚至有人指控阮文歛在襲擊途中,擄走並處決了數名南越警察的家人。

但一張愈是震撼的相片,就愈會簡化了相背後的人和事,無論是誰對誰錯,這些背後的故事巳不再重要,重要的是這張相片能剛好套進人們心中非黑即白的道德世界觀,滿足了他們只憑所見而下的道德判斷。

阮玉鸞從此成了殺害無辜戰犯的代名人,這個罪名亦伴隨了他一生。他晚年在美國開設披薩店,卻因為他在這張相片的身份被當地的居民發現而被迫退休。Eddie Adams在最後一次探訪阮玉鸞的披薩店時看到洗手間牆上被寫上:

“We know who you are, fucker”

對於人們在脫離歷史語境及憑直覺印象所下的道德判斷,Eddie Adams 說到:

Still photographs are the most powerful weapon in the world. People believe them, but photographs do lie, even without manipulation. They are only half-truths.

What the photograph didn’t say was, “What would you do if you were the general at that time and place on that hot day, and you caught the so-called bad guy after he blew away one, two or three American soldiers?”

我們認為相片就是事實的全部,但卻忽略了相片所記下的只是很多故事中的其中一刻,沒有過去,更沒有未來。帶著歷史語境來看相片並非一定能為某事作是非判斷,但至少這能讓我們從更多的角度來觀賞一張相片所想說的故事,當然,這其實也是尊重攝影師和相片中每個人的一種方法。

 

以下是Eddie Adams在2001年為阮玉鸞所寫下的悼詞全文:

I won a Pulitzer Prize in 1969 for a photograph of one man shooting another. Two people died in that photograph: the recipient of the bullet and GENERAL NGUYEN NGOC LOAN. The general killed the Viet Cong; I killed the general with my camera.

Still photographs are the most powerful weapon in the world. People believe them, but photographs do lie, even without manipulation. They are only half-truths.

What the photograph didn’t say was, “What would you do if you were the general at that time and place on that hot day, and you caught the so-called bad guy after he blew away one, two or three American soldiers?” General Loan was what you would call a real warrior, admired by his troops. I’m not saying what he did was right, but you have to put yourself in his position.

The photograph also doesn’t say that the general devoted much of his time trying to get hospitals built in Vietnam for war casualties. This picture really messed up his life.

He never blamed me. He told me if I hadn’t taken the picture, someone else would have, but I’ve felt bad for him and his family for a long time. I had kept in contact with him; the last time we spoke was about six months ago, when he was very ill. I sent flowers when I heard that he had died and wrote, “I’m sorry. There are tears in my eyes.”

 

資料來源:

《這張照片讓兩個人死去:吃了子彈的阮文斂和開槍的阮玉鸞將軍》

“Eulogy by Eddie Adams”

Photo credits: Associated Press/ 達志影像

 

 

關於作者:攝.眾生

攝.眾生
習武之人有三個階段:見自己,見天地,見眾生。攝影又何尚不是?

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